The key is to measure an isotope that has had time to decay a measurable amount, but not so much as to only leave a trace remaining.
Given isotopes are useful for dating over a range from a fraction of their half life to about four or five times their half life.
High mountain natural archives as glaciers, lakes, fens and solifluction lobes provide useful tools for the understanding of paleoclimate variability at higher altitudes.
Our research focuses on the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Holocene changes of alpine environments in Sierra Nevada, the southernmost range of the Iberian Peninsula and European continent.
These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.
I thought it would be useful to present an example where the geology is simple, and unsurprisingly, the method does work well, to show the quality of data that would have to be invalidated before a major revision of the geologic time scale could be accepted by conventional scientists.
Contact us University of Barcelona; University of Berne; Meteorological Survey of Catalonia; University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna; Archaeological Survey Canton Berne; ICREA at the Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona; Institute of Earth Science Jaume Almera, Barcelona; Ofiteco S.
A., Madrid; Schmidt Information- and Webdesign, Düsseldorf Research Project CGL2006-0111 to: CGL2009-06951/BTE from diverse projects of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (BS02250-0745, PI = Antonio Gómez-Ortiz, CGL2006-01111, PI = Lothar Schulte) and the European Commission (EN4V-CT97-0492, PI = David Palacios).
As rising ocean temperatures bleach corals in the Great Barrier Reef, scientists seek better insight into climate trends in the region.
However, climate models do not yet adequately reflect trends in southern tropical and subtropical oceans.
In February 2014, the researchers visited massive coral colonies at Heron Reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef, located off the northeastern coast of Australia.
The authors used scuba and pneumatic drills to penetrate the growing coral colonies and retrieve core samples.
Figure 1 shows a map of the location of the moraine arches.