Above the burial was a circle with five large pebbles and rounded limestone fragments.
Data evaluation included "wiggle matching" of different sets of tree rings.
The results suggest that salt mining in the Hallstatt region took place in the 14th-13th century BC, well before the so-called Hallstatt period.
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We discuss in some detail the chemical pretreatment of the samples and the data evaluation.
We also present a comprehensive survey of (super 14) C dates available in the literature concerning both botanical remains from the vicinity of the Iceman and from the earliest salt mining in Hallstatt.
The following geoarchaeology vignettes show that geological stories are inseparable from the human ones: Sea level can rise causing populations to migrate. Climate can alter the soil and shift the course of a culture. Together, geologists and archaeologists can unravel our past and better plan for and understand our future.
For 25 years, geologist Rolfe Mandel has been studying early Americans.
He wants to know when they first arrived on the continent, where they came from and where they went once they populated the landscape.
But in searching for clues from ancient people, Mandel decided on a route different from most archaeologists.
Radiocarbon dating (or simply carbon dating) is a radiometric dating technique that uses the decay of carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of organic materials, such as wood and leather, up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years Before Present (BP, present defined as CE 1950).