However, BRID is distinctive in its attention to the unique experience of Black people in dealing with racial discrimination and oppression. Black racial identity development has often been conceptualized in models that describe linear stages through which Black individuals move from a negative to a positive self-identity in the context of their racial group membership.
These revelations influenced his later work, especially the transition stage of his model (Immersion-Emersion).
Cross worked on his masters in clinical psychology at Roosevelt University in Chicago, where he became familiar with the stages of therapy during clinical training.
Multiracial Americans and social class: the influence of social class on racial identity (pp.
Cluster analyses of cross racial identity scale (CRIS) scores in three independent samples.
Cross’s parents encouraged their children to read broadly and to value learning, but they also communicated messages to their children that are now well documented in the research literature.
Cross’s father encouraged him to go to college but also pressured him to pursue a skilled trade that would enable him to support himself as an adult.
Self Development Lab (SDL) Research Projects and Assistants: The Self Portrait Project 2010-2011 Chloe Levine and Emily Parker 2011-2012 Laura Chung, Angela Cammack, Jessica Flori and Sarah Owen 2013-2014 Maria Rios Brache and Alicia Alvarez 2014-2015: Multicultural Psychology Textbook Alice Mo, Alicia Alavarez, Ambar Mc Field, Chloe Sarapas, Maria Rios Brache, and Tyler Hicks Fhagen, P. The relationship between parents’ racial identity attitudes and their adolescent children’s perception of physical appearance, racial identity and social adjustment.
Meaning making, internalized racism and African American identity.
The later versions of the model (i.e., the revised and expanded models in 19, respectively) have not only advanced the theorizing about Black racial identity, but the 2001 revision also resulted in a psychometri-cally supported measurement model, the Cross Racial Identity Scale.